There's no mystery here: the Europeans were the first culture introduced in Age of Empires III, and at that time, the concept of cultures didn't even exist in this game. They feature the simplest gameplay possible and are indicated for people playing Age of Empires III for the first time.
Being simple doesn't mean they're weak: the Europeans feature powerful units, best ships and the best artillery in the game. They're also the only culture that has access to Factories and to the Hospital.
New to the European arsenal, a Home City card that sends a Hospital Wagon, that becomes a Hospital. This building not only heals nearby units, but also trains surgeons and greatly improves the hitpoints, training speed and healing abilities of units.
Birthplace to most religions present in Wars of Liberty, Europe grants to its nations a new card called Advanced Religion. Not only it doubles the hitpoints of religious units, but also enables the Inquisitor, an unit that is both priest and spy!
Usually at Industrial Age, all Europeans get a very strong unique unit, except for the Italians. Read below.
The unified Kingdom of Great Britain came into being on 1 May 1707, the result of Acts of Union being passed by the parliaments of England and Scotland to unite the two kingdoms. The term 'United Kingdom' became official in 1801 when the parliaments of Britain and Ireland each passed an Act of Union, uniting the two kingdoms and creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, the UK emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century and the British dominance was later described as ‘’Pax Britannica’’. By the time of the Great Exhibition of 1851, Britain was described as the "workshop of the world". The British Empire was expanded to include India, large parts of Africa, and many other territories throughout the world, which led to it becoming known as ‘’the empire on which the sun never sets’’.
In Wars of Liberty, the British remain the colonial powerhouse they were in the Americas. Now expanding to Africa, they are ambitious and stronger than ever. They have improved their army with top-of-the-line infantry, cavalry and naval units. The extent of their empire is such that several territories ended up declaring their independence and became another major nation.
The leader of the British is Queen Victoria. Victoria inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. Privately, Victoria attempts to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and is identified with strict standards of personal morality. From 1 May 1876, she uses the additional title of Empress of India. On 23 September 1896, Victoria surpassed her grandfather George III as the longest-reigning monarch in English, Scottish, and British history. Her favorite personality traits are Prosperous and Expansive and her Home City is London, United Kingdom.
The British have several unique units, most of which are really strong. In Wars of Liberty, they no longer train longbowmen.
After the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789, the absolute monarchy was abolished and France became a constitutional monarchy. In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte seized control and was appointed Emperor of the French Empire. His armies conquered most of continental Europe, while members of the Bonaparte family were appointed as monarchs in some of the newly established kingdoms. These victories led to the worldwide expansion of French revolutionary ideals and reforms, such as the Metric system, the Napoleonic Code or the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. France also had colonial possessions, in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century to the 18th century. In the 19th and 20th centuries, its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly and culminated as the second largest in the world behind the British Empire.
In Wars of Liberty, the French Empire, with colonial possessions in Africa, Asia and the Americas, forms a multicultural society. Napoleon Bonaparte and his Grande Armée had already brought warfare to a whole new dimension and now, with the slogan “three colours, one flag, one empire”, the veteran and elite troops of the French army parade to war, ready to overcome any difficulty.
The leader of the French is Napoleon III. He was the first President of the French Republic and the first ruler of the Second French Empire. The nephew and heir of Napoleon I, Napoleon III was elected President in France's first ever popular vote in 1848 and initiated a coup d'état in 1851, before ascending the throne on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation. He ruled as Emperor of the French until 4 September 1870. He holds the distinction of being both the first titular president and the last monarch of France. His favorite personality traits are Industrious and Determined and his Home City is Paris, France.
The majority of French unique units are strong military.
Under Charles V, ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Spain, the current Netherlands region was part of the Seventeen Provinces of the Low Countries. In 1581 the Dutch Republic was born and from 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic designated the Netherlands as a republic modelled after the French Republic. In 1815, the Congress of Vienna formed the United Kingdom of the Netherlands by adding the southern Netherlands to the north in order to create a strong country on the northern border of France. The Dutch formed a firm colonial empire, with possessions on Latin America, South Africa and Indonesia. Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, trade, and especially banking have been leading sectors of the economy of the Dutch, who were also heavily involved in the slave trade.
In Wars of Liberty, the Dutch are a challenging nation with a great economy, which is based almost entirely on gold and the banking system. Its land army doesn't offer much uniqueness, but the Dutch navy makes up for this.
The leader of the Dutch is William III. On the abdication of his grandfather William I in 1840, he became the Prince of Orange. On the death of his father in 1849, he succeeded as King of the Netherlands. He also is the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and the Duke of Limburg from 1849 until the abolition of the duchy in 1866. He tried to sell his privately held grand duchy (Nassau) in 1867, leading to the Luxembourg Crisis, which almost precipitated war between Prussia and France. However, the subsequent Second Treaty of London reestablished Luxembourg as a fully independent country. His favorite personality trait is Dictatorial and his Home City is Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
The Dutch get a couple of new unique units.
The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands. The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napoleon. In 1830, the Belgian Revolution led to the separation of the Southern Provinces from the Netherlands and to the establishment of a Catholic and bourgeois, officially French-speaking and neutral, independent Belgium under a provisional government and a national congress.
In Wars of Liberty, the Belgians are a nation that excels on maps with lots of trade routes and natives. Their bonuses work best with the presence of trading posts.
The leader of the Belgians is Leopold II. Leopold was the founder and sole owner of the Congo Free State, a private project undertaken on his own behalf. At the Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, the colonial nations of Europe committed the Congo Free State to improving the lives of the native inhabitants. From the beginning, however, Leopold essentially ignored these conditions and ran the Congo using a mercenary force for his personal gain. Some of the money from this exploitation was used for public and private construction projects in Belgium during this period. His favorite personality traits are Colonial and Mercantile and his Home City is Brussels, Belgium.
The Belgians have a couple of high-technologic units.
The unification of the crowns of Aragon and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire, although each kingdom of Spain remained a separate country, in social, political, laws, currency and language. Spain was Europe's leading power throughout the 16th century and most of the 17th century, a position reinforced by trade and wealth from colonial possessions. The Spanish Empire expanded to include great parts of the Americas, islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy, cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
In Wars of Liberty, the Spanish are wild travellers and conquerors, thirsty for gold and adventure. Even while travelling miles away from their Home City, discovering new territories for the crown, they always stay loyal to her. At the same time, Sevilla will never let the unprotected starve to death, even when they are in the most difficult places to reach.
The leader of the Spanish is Queen Isabella II. Isabella came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, who refused to recognise a female sovereign, leading to the Carlist Wars. Her reign is maintained only through the support of the army. She usually shows favour to her reactionary generals and statesmen and to the Church and religious orders. During her reign the fruitless Chincha Islands War against Peru and Chile took place. Her favorite personality traits are Protective and Spiritual and her Home City is Seville, Spain.
The Spanish have several unique units, mostly focused on early game.
Portugal spearheaded the exploration of the world and undertook the Age of Discovery. Prince Henry the Navigator became the main sponsor and patron of this endeavour. During this period, portuguese explorers explored almost the whole world, discovered new places and continents and formed colonies for the portuguese crown. After many long decades of internal conflict, civil wars, and occupation by foreign countries, order was restored in Portugal with the Liberal Revolution of 1820. After that, Portugal was about to play an important role in the Scramble for Africa as well, its interests clashing with the British aspirations to create a Cape to Cairo Railway.
In Wars of Liberty, the Portuguese focus -just like in reality- on discovering new places and exploring unexplored territories. Their explorer always leads them in this quest. They don't just explore, however, they also establish new towns and trading posts, which help their empire grow larger and become more powerful.
The Leader of the Portuguese is Carlos I the Diplomat. The grandson of King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, Carlos was born in 1863. He has an intense education and was prepared to rule as a constitutional monarch. As a patron of science and the arts, King Carlos took an active part in the celebration of the 500th anniversary (in 1894) of the birth of Prince Henry the Navigator. Carlos has a personal interest in deep-sea and maritime exploration, publishing an account of his own studies in this area. His Home City is Lisbon, Portugal.
The Portuguese favor long range combat and prefer to fight from behind walls.
The Renaissance, a period of vigorous revival of the arts and culture, originated in Italy thanks to a number of factors, as the great wealth accumulated by merchant cities and the patronage of its dominant families like the Medici of Florence. The birth of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. In 1860–61, general Giuseppe Garibaldi led the drive for unification in Naples and Sicily, allowing the Sardinian government led by the Count of Cavour to declare a united Italian kingdom on 17 March 1861. In 1866, Victor Emmanuel II waged the Third Italian War of Independence which allowed Italy to annex Venetia. Finally, as France during the disastrous Franco-Prussian War of 1870 abandoned its garrisons in Rome, the Italians rushed to fill the power gap by taking over the Papal States.
In Wars of Liberty, the Italians are a newborn nation; even though their national identity was formed centuries ago, they managed to gain their full autonomy only lately. They are people of religion and art, but equally skilled on the battlefield, with paramilitary troops that are used to intrigues and dirty games.
The leader of the Italians is Victor Emmanuel II. King of Sardinia from 1849, Victor Emmanuel II assumed the title King of Italy on 17 March 1861, to become the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century. He lived for some years of his youth in Florence and showed an early interest in politics, the military, and sports. He took part in the First Italian War of Independence under his father, fighting in the front line at many battles. The Italians gave him the epithet “Father of the Homeland” (“Padre della Patria”). His favorite personality traits are Imperialistic and XXXXX and his Home City is Rome, Italy.
The Italians favor long range warfare and have many civilian unique unit and buildings.
After successfully conquering Constantinople and destroying the Byzantine Empire, the Ottomans formed their own multicultural empire, which expanded on Asia, North Africa and the Balkans, and tried to become a powerful European nation, usually copying the civilizations of the west. When their huge empire was torn down, Mustafa Kemal’s movement of the Young Turks managed to restore order in the new republic that rose from the empire’s ashes, Turkey.
In Wars of Liberty, the Ottomans are a civilization who favors using strong gunpowder units and powerful artillery. They are fighting not to lose their identity, while the revolutions of the Orthodox populations of their empire break out one after another, distracting the Porte from focusing on economic growth and reformation.
The leader of the Ottomans is Sultan Abdülmecid I. His reign is notable for the rise of nationalist movements within the empire's territories. Abdülmecid encourages Ottomanism among the secessionist subject nations and tries to stop the rise of nationalist movements within the empire. During his reign the Ottoman Empire was officially included among the European family of nations. His favorite personality traits are Diplomatic and Democratic and his Home City is Istanbul, Ottoman Empire.
The Ottomans have several unique units.
For Almost 600 years, the Maltese have protected the mediterranean sea from the forces of Islam, in hopes of protecting the christian realm. For most of this time, they have remained an independent nation under the control of The Knights Hospitaller. Under their rule, the Ottomans were defeated during the Siege of Malta, securing with the Spanish the safety of the west Mediterranean Sea. During the Napoleonic campaign in Egypt, the island became occupied by the french, only to be liberated by the british later. After this, the Maltese became a british protectorate, becoming a port to India.
In Wars of Liberty, the Maltese are still the independent nation that lives to protect the Christian realm. With lots of defensive bonuses and an old-fashioned gameplay, the Maltese offer a very unique gameplay that relies on surprising the enemy and holding until they are ready to counterattack.
The leader of the Maltese is Emmanuel de Rohan-Polduc.
The Maltsese have a very unique roster as it is mostly medieval.
The land of the steppes and the merciless Tsars, Russia was proclaimed an Empire in 1721, under Peter the Great, and became recognized as a world power. Being a huge country, expanding both in Europe and in Asia, Russia’s sphere of influence was rather great, leading to Russia having not only many allies, but many enemies as well. The late 19th century saw the rise of various socialist movements in Russia, with the most notable being the October Revolution in 1917, which started the Russian Civil War and created the Soviet Russia.
In Wars of Liberty, the Russians are the protectors of their southern Orthodox Slav allies and a really terrifying opponent, especially on snow maps; the dreadful Russian winter is their secret weapon and even the strongest foes may be subjugated by it.
The leader of the Russians is Tsar Alexander II. The eldest son of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia, Alexander’s most important achievement was the emancipation of serfs in 1861, for which he became known as ‘’Alexander the Liberator’’. Apart from Emperor of Russia, he is also the King of Poland and the Grand Prince of Finland and, at the beginning of his reign, he expressed the famous statement "No dreams" addressed to the Poles inhabiting his empire. His Home City is St.Petersburg, Russia.
The Russians have several unique units and one unique building.
Following the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna convened in 1814 and founded the German Confederation, a loose league of 39 sovereign states. Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled the creation of the North German Confederation and the exclusion of Austria, formerly the leading German state, from the federation's affairs. With almost two-thirds of its territory and population, Prussia was the dominating constituent of the new state.
In Wars of Liberty, the Germans are a totally militarized nation; their war machine is absolutely strong in all areas and is also backed by loyal mercenaries, well-paid and ready to give their life for the Emperor. They focus especially on cavalry, which are delivered freely from their Home City with every shipment that's sent to them.
The leader of the Germans is Otto von Bismarck. Bismarck is dominating German and European affairs with his conservative policies. In 1871, after a series of short victorious wars, he unified most of the German states (excluding Austria) into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. His diplomacy of Realpolitik and powerful rule has gained him the nickname the "Iron Chancellor". His favorite personality traits are Charismatic and Diplomatic and his Home City is Berlin, Germany.
The Germans have powerful new unique units, while losing all previous medieval units.
The House of Habsburg was one of the most important royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. Emerged from Switzerland, they moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria in the middle ages. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains, to include Burgundy, Spain and her colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories into the inheritance.
In Wars of Liberty, the Habsburgs are not a single nation, but a combination of several ones, mainly Austria, Hungary, Switzerland and other Germanic states. They represent most of the continental Europe and are the only European that are not colonizers.
The leader of the Habsburgs is Queen Maria Theresa, the only female and last ruler of the House of Habsburgs. She rules by the counsel of her advisers. She understands the importance of her public persona and is able to simultaneously evoke both esteem and affection from her subjects. Her Home City is Vienna, Austria.
Since all Habsburg units are mercenaries, they have a whole new set of units.
After the Danish defeat in the so-called Danish-British Gunboat War, during the Napoleonic Wars, the British control of the waterways between Denmark and Norway proved disastrous to the union's economy and in 1813, Denmark-Norway went bankrupt. The Danish-Norwegian union was dissolved and Norway entered a new union with Sweden which lasted until 1905. Denmark kept the colonies of Iceland, Faroe Islands, and Greenland. Apart from the Nordic colonies, Denmark ruled over Danish India, the Danish Gold Coast and the Danish West Indies. A nascent Danish liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s; after the European Revolutions of 1848, Denmark peacefully became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849.
In Wars of Liberty, the Danes are war-torn people, ready to defend their homes at all times. Through centuries, they have developed special skills at irregular warfare and especially at fighting on snowy terrains, but they have also excelled at literature, poetry and the arts in general, offering Europe some of its greater masterpieces on these fields.
The leader of the Danes is Frederick VII. Frederick had a rather neglected childhood after the divorce of his parents and for many years he appeared as the ”problem child” of the royal family. A keen antiquarian and a simple, yet dignified monarch, loved by his people, he is the last Danish monarch of the older Royal branch of the House of Oldenburg and also the last king of Denmark to rule as an absolute monarch. During his reign, he signed a constitution that established a Danish parliament and made the country a constitutional monarchy. His favorite personality traits are Charismatic and Democratic and his Home City is Copenhagen, Denmark.
The Danes don't have many unique units and one unique building.
The Swedes are a nordic people that inhabit Scandinavia. During the 17th-18th centuries, the Swedish Empire was one amongst the greatest of Europe. This period is known as ‘The Great Power era’. One of the reasons why they achieved such great success, was their innovation in military tactics, greatly diverging from the tactics on the continent. Now, the Swedes wish to retrieve their former glory. No longer an empire, and locked in Scandinavia, they must find a way to sit, again, amongst the most powerful nations on earth.
In Wars of Liberty, the Swedes are a powerful european nation, with a unique economy that works around natural resources and an army system that will allow them to quickly muster a powerful army if you have the resources. For the Swedes, patience will surely pay.
The leader of the Swedes is Oscar II, the king. He will modernize Sweden and get it ready for whatever comes. His Home City is Stockholm.
The Swedes have four unique units and one unique building.
Both Italians and Swedes were once considered for Age of Empires III - some losts files can be found inside the game's data. This way, we could restore some old content into our own civilizations. With 6 new civilizations, the European culture defines itself as our largest culture without any doubt. It is relatively simple to create an European civilization, being their cards and unit textures their main problem.